Akanyamakuru ka FDU-Inkingi, Ugushyingo 2013

Isuka n’inkoni ruracyageretse mu Rwanda.
Dr Jean-Baptiste Mberabahizi, Umunyabanga Mukuru, akaba n’Umuvugizi
 
Iyo uvuze u Rwanda, abantu benshi bumva ikibazo cy’Abahutu n’Abatutsi. Kandi ni mu gihe. Nyuma y’ubwicanyi ndengakamere bwibasiye Abatutsi cyangwa Abahutu kubera ubwoko bwabo, biraruhije kubona u Rwanda ukundi. FPR-Inkotanyi yabanje kujijisha Abanyarwanda, none nyuma y’imyaka hafi 20 yigaruriye Leta, ibyo yahishaga rubanda yabishyize ku ka rubanda muri gahunda yayo yise « Ndi Umunyarwanda ». Gahunda yabo ya FPR yari gahunda yo guhindura igice kinini cy’Abanyarwanda, ingaruzwamuheto n’abenegihugu bacagase, bagenda babebera kubera « ibyo bene wabo bakoze ».
 
Amateka y’u Rwanda ni uko agaragara. Iyo ugiye mu mizi yayo, ubaye kandi ushyize ku ruhande uruhare rw’abanyamahanga, usanga amateka y’u Rwanda arangwa n’amakimbirane hagati  « y’isuka n’inkoni » nk’uko umwanditsi w’umunyatanzaniya Joseph Mbwiriza yabisesenguye mu nyandiko yise « The Hoe and the Stick : A Political Economy of the Heru Kingdom ». Asoza agaragaza ko kwubaka Leta
mu bihugu byari bituwe n’abahinzi n’aborozi, byakozwe mu rujya n’uruza rw’amakimbirane n’umuco w’ibyo bice byombi bigize igihugu.
 
Mu Rwanda , byabaye gatebe gatoki. Ingoma nyiginya yarahiritswe isimburwa na repubulika muri 1961 kugeza muri 1994. Nyuma ya 1994, hagiyeho ubutegetsi bwitwikiriye umwambaro wa republika ariko mu by’ukuri bushingiye ku bakomoka ku batwaraga u Rwanda mbere ku ngoma y’abanyiginya hiyongereyeho ababakurikiye mu buhungiro muri za 1960.
Iyo ubirebye neza, usanga akenshi injijuke zihatanira ubutegetsi zitandukanywa ni uko zimwe zikomoka mu bahinzi (Abahutu), izindi zigakomoka mu borozi (Abatutsi). Bamwe bakirahira uwabahaye isuka, abandi bakirahira uwabahaye inka. Nibo birara mu bwoko bakomokamo, bagashakiramo amaboko, bagamije kwigarurira ubukungu bw’u Rwanda , biciye mu kwigarurira Leta y’u Rwanda . Iyo gatebe gatoki se izarangira ite ? Amaherezo y’u Rwanda ni ayahe ?
 
Tubanze dusobanikirwe n’imvugo
Isuka nicyo gikoresho kiranga umuhinzi mu Rwanda . Ubuhinzi nibwo bwatunze abanyarwanda benshi ndetse na n’ubu biracyari uko kuko 74% bagitunzwe n’ubuhinzi. Hari ibimenyetso byerekana ko mu Rwanda hari abahinzi b’amasaka n’ uburo ndetse n’isuka kuva mu kinyejana cya 6 mbere y’ivuka rya Yezu Kristu. Ubushakashatsi bwerekanye ibimenyetso bitagibwaho impaka ko hari amasuka icyo gihe. Niyo mpamvu no ku ngoma nyiginya, isuka yakomeje kuba ikimenyetso cy’ubumwe bw’u Rwanda .
 
Inkoni nicyo gikoresho cy’umushumba mu Rwanda . Ubworozi bwatunze Abanyarwanda bake, igihe kirekire cyane. Ubuzima bwabo bukaba bushingiye ku bushyo bw’inka (inka zabaga hagati ya 30 na 50) cyangwa ku mitwe (amashyo ane cyangwa atanu yabaga ahwanye n’inka nka 200). Byabaye bityo kugeza igihe ibura ry’urwuri kubera ubuto bw’igihugu n’ubwiyongere bw’abaturage byatumye imitwe icika.
 
Muri ibyo bihe, abahinzi n’aborozi bapfaga ubutaka. Abahinzi bakeneye imirima. Aborozi bakeneye inzuri. Intambara zabayeho akenshi zabaga zigamije kurengera ubutaka bw’imiryango ku bahinzi. Ni nayo mpamvu umutware w’umuryango yitwaga umuhinza, kandi mu nshingano ze hakabamo kubika imbuto, gutangiza ihinga, kugusha imvura, kwizihiza umuganura, n’ibindi bijyanye no guhinga. Naho mu borozi, intambara zabaga zigamije kwagura ubutaka bashaka urwuri runini rw’inka. Mu gihe abahinzi babaga batuye ahantu hamwe, aborozi bo bashoboraga kugisha, bakurikiye amashyo y’inka zabo uko zigenda zishaka urwuri n’amariba.
 
Bose bari batunzwe n’ubutaka gusa. Ni nabwo bapfaga. Igihe hadukaga ibikingi, ndetse bene byo bakabikoma, imirima y’abahinzi yaragabanukaga uko ibikingi byiyongera, kugera ubwo abahinzi bahinduwe abaja, bategetswe gukora nta ngurane y’akazi kabo, mu byo bitaga « gufata igihe » cyangwa gukora uburetwa. Ubutaka bwari bukenewe ku nka imwe, bwashoboraga gutunga umuryango w’abantu bane. Ubwiyongere bw’ubushyo bw’inka rero, bwakururaga « intambara y’isuka n’inkoni ».
 
Ubukungu bw’u Rwanda bushingiye ku butaka
Umugambi wa Leta ya FPR ivuga ko ngo ishaka kwubaka « ubukungu bushingiye ku bumenyi » ni umugambi ushingiye ku muyaga. Ubumenyi ni ngombwa ariko ntibushobora kubaho mu kirere. Bushingiye ku bantu. Abantu kandi ikibazo cy’ibanze bagomba gukemura ni ikibazo cy’ibibatunga. Ntawujya gucuruza ubumenyi, atabonye ikimutunga mu gihe agishaka ubwo bumenyi. Kweza ibitunga abaturage byinshi nibyo bituma ibibatunga bidahenda, bigatuma nabo badahenda ku isoko ry’umurimo.
 
Kugirango ikibazo gisobanuke neza ni ngombwa kugihera ku muzi. Mbere y’uko abakoloni bagera mu Rwanda , ubukungu bw’u Rwanda bwari bushingiye ku butaka. Habagaho indi mirimo nk’abacuzi, abakannyi, ababumbyi, ababaji, n’indi ariko uretse ababumbyi, abandi bagiraga n’imirima ibatunze.
 
Aho abakoloni baziye mu Rwanda , ubukungu bw’u Rwanda bwungutse indi mirimo, nk’ubucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro, inganda, ubucuruzi n’ubukerarugendo. Mu mwaka wa 1965, uruhare rw’ubuhinzi n’ubworozi mu musaruro w’igihugu (Produit Intérieur Brut/Gross Domestic Product) rwari 74%. Mu mwaka wa 1990, urwo ruhare rwari rusigaye ari 32,5%. Nyuma y’intambara muri 94 urwo ruhare rwarazamutse rugera kuri 49,8%. Mu mwaka ushize w’i 2012, nibwo rwongeye gusubira kuri 32,1%. Ikitarahindutse ariko ni uko, ubucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro, inganda, ubucuruzi n’ubukerarugendo, bikenera amadovize aturuka mu buhinzi bw’ikawa n’icyayi, kugirango bishobore kugura hanze ibikoresho n’ibikoreshofatizo.
 
Kuva imbibi z’u Rwanda zemejwe mu masezerano yakurikiye inama yahuje Ububirigi, Ubwongereza n’Ubudage yabereye i Buruseli mu Bubirigi tariki ya 8 Gashyantare 1910 nk’uko yemejwe tariki ya 14 Gicurasi 1910, ubuso bw’u Rwanda ntabwo bwiyongereye. Nk’uko benshi babizi ni km² 26 338. Ubutaka bushobora guhingwa ni Ha miliyoni 1,3. Wakwongeraho ibishanga biri ku buso bwa Ha 165,000. Ngubwo ubutaka Abanyarwanda bose bafiteho uruhare, bafiteho uburenganzira.
 
Muri 1965, u Rwanda rwari rutuwe n’abaturage miliyoni 3,2. Muri 1990, bari miliyoni 7. N’ubwo kuva tariki ya 1 Ukwakira 1990, mu Rwanda habaye ubwicanyi bw’indengakamere, bushobora kuba bwarahitanye miliyoni hafi 2 z’Abanyarwanda, u Rwanda rutuwe n’abaturage miliyoni 11 kandi ubutaka buracyari bwabundi. Ingo zifite amasambu ari hejuru ya Ha 2 zari 6% mu mwaka w’i 2001. Igitangaje ni uko muri 1984, izo ngo zari 16,4%. Mbega byabaye bibi uko imyaka yagiye ishira. Hari ingo nke zigenda zikubira ubutaka. Naho ingo 70% zifite amasambu ategera kuri Ha 1. Bariya bikubiye ubutaka ni bande ?
 
Iyo witegereje uko u Rwanda ruteye, usanga ubukungu buri mu maboko y’agatsiko k’Abanyarwanda bari impunzi muri Uganda, mu Burundi no muri Republika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo, batashye muri 1994 cyangwa se ababakomokaho. Abatwara u Rwanda mbere ya repubulika, abenshi bari abatware b’abatutsi. Nibo bari batunze ibikingi. Ibyo bikingi abaturage bari babyishubije, nyuma ya revolisiyo yo 1959, bo bahakana kugeza ubu, bakayita ‘imbarutso ya jenoside’.
 
N’ubwo barimo amakimbirane akomoka ku ntambara yo ku Rucunshu, igihe Umwami Rutarindwa Mibambwe yicwa n’abe bose, bikaba wenda aribyo bituma Umwami Kigeli Ndahindurwa adataha, agatsiko gatwara igihigu, kikubira ibiva mu butaka bw’u Rwanda, mu musaruro wose w’Abanyarwanda, gakomoka muri abo Banyarwanda batahutse muri 94 bahoze ari abanyabikingi. Benshi muri bo ni Abatutsi. Naho izo ngo zitagira na Ha 1 y’ubutaka, akenshi ni Abanyarwanda batigeze bahunga, biganjemo Abahutu. Aya niyo makimbirane akomeye ari mu gihugu. Muri make, intambara y’inkoni n’isuka irakomeje.
 
Intambara y’inkoni n’isuka irakomeje
Raporo y’Umuvunyi yo mu mwaka w’i 2008, yerekana ko amakimbirane agezwa kuri urwo rwego mu nyandiko akenshi aba ashamikiye ku bibazo biterwa n’ubutegetsi cyangwa bishamikiye ku murimo (28,29%), ku manza zaciwe (25,87%) cyangwa ku butaka (23,83%). Mu mwaka w’i 2012, ibibazo by’imanza zaciwe n’ibibazo by’ubutaka nibyo byaje imbere. Imanza zaciwe nazo akenshi ziba zirimo amakimbirane ashingiye ku butaka n’imiturire. Ntawashidikanya ko ku manza 83,584 zaciwe n’inkiko zo mu Rwanda mu mwaka w’i 2011-2012, harimo 49,876 zaciwe n’inkiko z’ibanze na 22, 896 zaciwe n’inkiko zisumbuye, inyinshi zishingiye cyangwa zirimo amakimbirane ashamikiye ku masambu n’imiturire, cyane cyane mu cyaro.
 
Nta kuntu hatari kuba amakimbirane akomeye. Guhera mu kwezi kwa Nyakanga 1994, Abahutu barahunze ku bwinshi, ku buryo mu bihugu bihana imbibi n’u Rwanda hari miliyoni 2,5 z’impunzi. Muri icyo gihe, abahoze ari impunzi muri ibyo bihugu, bari biganjemo Abatutsi, barahungutse. Leta y’i Kigali ivuga ko abahungutse bagera kuri miliyoni imwe. Muri make, miliyoni 2,5 zari zataye ubutaka bwazo, abarutashye nabo baraza barabwifatira. Ng’uko uko intambara y’isuka n’inkoni yakomeje.
 
Niyo mpamvu, amategeko y’ingenzi aranga Leta ya FPR-Inkotanyi akaba n’ikimenyetso cy’iyo ntambara ari amategeko afitanye isano na « jenoside » n’amategeko afitanye isano n’ubutaka. Ubutaka bugenwa n’Itegeko rigenga ubutaka mu Rwanda N° 43/2013 ryo kuwa 16/06/2013 ryasimbuye iryaribanjirije (Itegeko Ngenga n°08/2005 ryo kuwa 14/07/2005 rigena imikoreshereze n’imicungire y’ubutaka mu Rwanda ). Irindi « tegeko » rigena iby’ubutaka ni Iteka rya minisitiri N° 001/16.01 ryo kuwa 26/04/2010 rigena Uburyo Isaranganya ry’Amasambu Rikorwa. Iri niryo riha Abanyarwanda batahutse muri 94 uburenganzira bwo kugumana igice cy’ubutaka bafashe FPR-Inkotanyi imaze gufata ubutegetsi.
Tutagiye mu isesengura rirerire, icy’ingenzi kirimo ni uko ryemeza ko « ubutaka bwose ari ubwa Leta » naho ababutunze bakaba bagomba gusa kubukodesha na nyirabwo, ni ukuvuga Leta, mu gihe babwambuwe bagahabwa gusa ingurane y’ibyo babukozeho. Ni ukuvuga ko ka gatsiko twavugaga mu kanya kihaye ubutaka bwose bw’u Rwanda nk’uko byahoze mbere y’ubukoloni.
 
Amaherezo ni ayahe?
Leta ya FPR-Inkotanyi yahisemo inzira ebyiri. Inzira ya mbere ni ukubuza Abahutu kugira ubwisanzure bwa politiki, bagahinduka abenegihugu bacagase, bahora bigengesereye, byose mu izina ryo « kwirinda indi jenoside ». Iyi nzira kandi ijyana na gahunda zihariye zirimo gahunda yo gukona abagabo no guha imiti abagore kugirango bagabanye ubwororoke bw’abo Banyarwanda nk’uko ibarishamibare rya Leta ya FPR ryavuye mu Ibarura Rusange ry’Abaturage riheruka ryabyerekanye.
 
Inzira ya kabiri ni ukugerageza kwagura u Rwanda , biciye mu ntambara zo kwigarurira intara z’ibihugu bihana imbibi n’u Rwanda cyane cyane Uburasirazuba bwa Republika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo. Intambara z’urudaca ziri muri ako karere kuva mu mwaka w’i 1998 nicyo zigamije muri rusange. Urwitwazo izo ntambara zigira ni uguhiga « abajenosideri » bo muri FDLR, kubambura intwaro kugirango barengere « Abanyekongo b’Abatutsi » bo muri icyo gice cya Leta ya Kongo.
 
Nk’uko twese tubizi, izo gahunda zose ntizishoboka. Iyi nzira yo kwigaruria igice cya Republika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo, yarananiranye. Ugutsindwa kw’abiyise M23 kwarabyerekanye bihangije, kuberako iyo gahunda ibangamiye inyungu z’ibindi bihugu, harimo n’ibihugu duhana imbibi nka Tanzaniya.
 
Kandi n’iriya nzira yo gukumira Abahutu, kubima uburenganzira bwa politiki, no kugabanya ubwororoke bw’abo, nayo ntizashoboka. Kugabanya ubwororoke byo byaranze kuko bigaragarira mu mibare. Iyo biza gushoboka, ntabwo u Rwanda ruba rutuwe na miliyoni 11. Ikindi kandi nta gihugu na kimwe kigeze kibigeraho. Na Leta y’Afrika y’Epfo mu gihe cya Apartheid ntiyigeze ishobora kubuza Abirabura kwororoka. Na none, mu Burundi , Leta yariho hagati ya 1966 na 2005, byarayinaniye kubuza Abahutu kwororoka. Icyo byabyaye kandi ni intambara. Na none, gushaka gutsemba Abatutsi mu Rwanda , ntabwo byigeze bihira cyangwa bibuza Leta yariho mbere ya 1994 guhirima.
 
Amaherezo rero aragaragara. U Rwanda rugomba kwubaka ubumwe « bushingiye ku isuka ariko budaheza inkoni ». Nk’uko Joseph Mbwiriza yabivuze, n’ubundi umuhinzi akeneye umworozi, kandi n’umworozi akeneye umuhinzi. Cyane cyane ko aho ibintu bigeze mu mateka y’u Rwanda , mu bihe bizaza, benshi mu Banyarwanda babaye abahinzi-borozi.
Dr Jean-Baptiste Mberabahizi
Umunyamabanga Mukuru, akaba n’Umuvugizi wa FDU-Inkingi
 
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