Ni kuki mu bihugu bitaratera imbere mu nzira ya Demokarasi, utavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi afatwa nk’umwanzi w’igihugu?

Benoit Ndagijimana
Umunyamabanga Mukuru Wungirije wa FDU-INKINGI

Kunenga ubutegetsi bifatwa kimwe no kwanga igihugu, ibi bikaba biba cyane cyane mu bihugu bitari byagira amahirwe yo kugira ubutegetsi bushingiye kuri Demokarasi isesuye. Ingero ni nyinshi ku buryo ntawazivuga ngo azirangize. Cyakora kugira ngo tugerageze kurebera hamwe impamvu zituma ubutegetsi bw’ibihugu byinshi bugira imyitwarire nk’iyo, turafata zimwe mu ngero zizwi cyane mu mateka ya politiki, kuva mu myaka ishize kugeza uyu munsi.

Dufashe urugero kuri Afrika, urutonde rw’abakuru b’ibihugu baranzwe no kunigana ijambo abaturage muri rusange kimwe no gucecekesha abatavuga rumwe nabo ni rurerure : Idi Amin Dada (Uganda), Jean Bedel Bokassa (Centrafrique), Joseph Désiré Mobutu (Zaïre, actuellement RDC), Gnassingbé (Togo), Charles Taylor (Libéria), Omar el-Béchir (Soudan), Robert Mugabe (Zimbabwe), Omar Bongo (Gabon), Hosni Moubarak (Egypte), Zine El Abidine Ben Ali (Tunisie), Mouammar Kadhafi (Libye),…

Mu yindi migabane y’isi, naho hagiye hagaragara abantu b’ibisare bagiye batsemba imbaga y’abantu : A. Hitler (Allemagne), Mussolini (Italie), Pol Pot,(Cambodge), ba Kim(Corée du Nord), etc.

Iyo witegereje, usanga muri rusange abenshi muri aba bategetsi bavuzweho kuba abanyagitugu no gukandamiza rubanda, kwica no gufunga abatavuga rumwe nabo, baragiye bamara imyaka myinshi ku butegetsi. Icyo bahuriraho ariko cyane ni uburyo bubi bakuweho. Bahanantuwe ku ntebe zabo aka ya magambo yo muri Biblia. Kubera kwihambira ku butegetsi no kutumva ko na nyina wundi abyara umuhungu, iryo hanuka ryabo ryatwaye imbaga y’abaturage itagira ingano.

Mu ngero za vuba, twavuga nka Saddam Hussein (Irak), yaranzwe no gutegekesha igitugu ndetse no kwica abatavuga rumwe na we. Gusa  intambara yamugabweho ikanahirika ubutegetsi bwe, byaje kugaragara ko yari intambara y’ikinyoma kuko Abanyamerika n’abambari babo mbere yo gutera batangarije isi yose ko Saddam atunze intwaro za kirimbuzi adashaka gutanga ku neza, bityo bikaba byari ngombwa kumutera bakazimwambura atari yazikoresha amarorerwa. Abanyamerika, abongereza, …barateye imigi ya Irak bayihindura amatongo, Saddam aratsindwa, arafatwa, araburanishwa ndetse ashyirwa mu kagozi aramanikwa, ariko kugeza n’uyu munsi za ntwaro za kirimbuzi bateye bamurega ntazari zaboneka.

Mu Misiri, Hosni Moubarak yavuyeho ari uko abaturage bahagurutse bagahagarara, bagahangana n’ingabo zishyigikiye ubutegetsi. Yavuyeho hamaze kumeneka amaraso y’inzira karengane nyinshi.

Muri Libya, nyuma y’imyaka 42 ayobora icyo gihugu, Mouammar Khadafi aherutse guhitanwa n’intambara y’abamwigometseho babifashijwemo n’ibihugu byo muri OTAN, birangajwe imbere n’Ubufaransa. AbanyaLibya baguye muri iyo ntambara babarirwa mu bihumbi n’ibihumbi, n’ahandi n’ahandi.

Ntawakwibagirwa intambara imaze iminsi muri Syria, aho Perezida Bachar Al Assad abifashijwemo na bimwe mu bihugu by’ibihangange nk’Uburusiya n’Ubushinwa,yahisemo kworeka imbaga y’abaturage arasa amabombe mu mujyi wa Homs no mu yindi mijyi y’igihugu cye, bityo akaba arimo kworeka imbaga y’inzirakarengane aho kumva amajwi y’abamusaba kuva ku butegetsi kubera imitegekere mibi.

Hari bamwe mu bategetsi batangiye bagendera ku mahame ya demokarasi, hanyuma igihe cyo kurangiza mandats zabo bagahindura itegeko nshinga ku buryo ribemerera kwiyongeza, cyangwa se bagahitamo kuvunira ibiti mu matwi, bakica amategeko babizi.  Urugero ni nka R. Mugabe wagejeje igihugu cye Zimbabwe ku bwigenge, nyuma akaza kugundira ubutegetsi ari nako yitwara nk’abandi banyagitugu. Twanavuga Laurent Gbagbo wahoze ayobora Côte d’Ivoire, wanze kwemera ko yatsinzwe amatora, maze igihugu kikagwa mu icuraburindi ry’intambara hagati y’abamushyigikiye n’abashyigikiye Alassan Ouattara, ubu uyobora Côte d’Ivoire.

Kugeza ubu Sénégal yari yarabaye kimwe mu bihugu bike by’Afrika byagize amahirwe yo kugira abayobozi bamenya gusezera igihe kigeze. Nta muntu washoboraga gutekereza ko Abdoulaye Wade, umukambwe, umunyabwenge, umuhanga  wize akanigisha za Kaminuza zikomeye, umugabo waranzwe no guharanira Demokarasi n’iterambere, haba mu rwego rw’igihugu cye, haba ku mugabane w’Afrika, haba ndetse no ku isi yose, yasaza nabi yanduranyije ! Koko ku myaka 85, aracyahatanira kuyobora Sénégal, mu gihe n’amategeko ubwayo atabimwemerera ?  Ese koko iyi ndwara ifata abakuru b’ibihugu bikiri mu nzira y’amajyambere iterwa n’iki, izavurwa ite, izavurizwa he ?

Mu by’ukuri, iyo witegereje usanga zimwe mu mpamvu zituma abakuru b’ibihugu bigira akari aha kajyahe, ari izi :

-Kuryoherwa no kuyobora abandi, ukumva utajya mu bayoborwa

-Gukunda icyubahiro n’ikuzo

-Kugira abajyanama babi,

-Kutagira abajyanama wizera

-Kwigizayo abakubwiza ukuri ku bintu bitagenda cg se bigomba gukosorwa

-Gushimisha ibihugu by’ibihangange nka Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika, Ubwongereza, Ubufaransa, Uburusiya, Ubushinwa, n’ibindi.

Nyuma y’uko twibukiranyije zimwe mu ngero z’abategetsi bo mu bihugu binyuranye bagiye barangwa no gukandamiza abo bashinzwe kuyobora, reka tugaruke ku miyoborere y’igihugu cyacu. Iyo witegereje usanga gushyira mu ngiro ihame rivuga ko « ubutegetsi butangwa n’abaturage kandi bugakorera abaturage » ryarakomeje rwose kugora abayobozi bakuru b’u Rwanda. Nawe se, uhereye igihe cy’abami n’abahinza, ubutegetsi bwari mu maboko y’umulyango umwe, cyangwa se y’ubwoko bumwe. Aha mushobora kuvuga muti no mu bihugu by’i Burayi byateye imbere mu miyoborere igendera kuri Demokarasi , abami n’abamikazi baturuka mu milyango imwe. Aha navuga ko nubwo muri ibyo bihugu bikimeze gutyo nkuko hirya no hino ku isi byari bimeze ahari ubwami hose, ububasha bw’ubwami bwaragabanutse cyane, umwami cyangwa umwamikazi, agengwa n’itegeko-nshinga kimwe n’andi mategeko yashyizweho mu buryo buciye muri Demokarasi (monarchie constitutionnelle/constitutional/parliamentary monarchy).

Mu Rwanda ho rero, nyuma y’uko ingoma ya cyami isezerewe mu buryo buciye mu matora y’abaturage ya Kamarampaka yo kuwa 25 Nzeri 1961, hagiyeho ubutegetsi bushingiye kuri Republika. Iyo witegereje imiterere y’ubutegetsi mu myaka yose ishize u Rwanda rubaye Republika, usanga abagiye bayobora igihugu kugeza uyu munsi batarubahirije amahame y’ubutegetsi bugendera kuri Demokarasi.

Perezida Geregori Kayibanda ni umwe mu ntwari dukesha Republika. Ubutegetsi bwe bwagiyeho ku buryo bwa Demokarasi, ariko nyuma byaje guhinduka, ishyaka rye MDR ryiharira imyanya y’ubuyobozi, ugize icyo anenga ku miyoborere akigizwayo. Ndetse ngo n’igitekerezo cyo guhindura itegeko nshinga kugira ngo yiyongeze mandat cyaje kuvuka, maze buhoro buhoro ibintu bijya i rudubi kugeza ubwo ubutegetsi bwe buhirikiwe n’uwari umukuru w’ingabo Yuvenali Habyarimana.

Perezida Yuvenali Habyarimana na we ni umwe mu ntwari zaharaniye ko Republika y’u Rwanda yashinga imizi mu minsi ya mbere y’ivuka ryayo. Ibyo bigaragara cyane mu buryo yitwaye nk’umugaba w’ingabo mu myaka ya 60 (les années 60-the 60’s), igihe ingabo z’igihugu zakomaga imbere ibitero by’Inyenzi.Yahiritse ubutegetsi bwa Republika ya mbere yari iyobowe na Geregori Kayibanda, tariki ya 5/07/1973. Yagiyeho anenga ubwikanyize bwa bamwe, ariko na we agezeho ntiyareka ngo abanyarwanda bisanzure mu bitekerezo byabo. Abakekwagaho kuvuga rumwe na Kayibanda baranyonzwe, abandi barafungwa, bakorerwa ibikorwa by’iyicarubozo, n’ibindi. Igihugu cyayobowe n’ishyaka rimwe rukumbi yishingiye we ubwe ari ryo „Muvoma“ (MRND) kuva muri 1975 kugeza muri 1990. Ubutegetsi bwagiye mu maboko y’abantu bamwe, maze ushatse kugira icyo anenga akigizwayo!

Perezida Pawulo Kagame[1] uyoboye u Rwanda muri iki gihe, ntacyo yahinduye kubyo tunenga abamubanjirije. Ahubwo we yashyizeho akarusho kuko uretse kuba ishyaka (bita umulyango) akomokamo FPR ryaranize andi mashyaka, amwe rikayamira riyagenera abayobozi bayayobora ariko bakorera FPR, ayandi rikayaca burundu cyangwa se rikayabuza kuvuka (urugero ni FDU-Inkingi cyangwa se Green Party), yanarushije abamubanjirije kwica (bivugwa ko yishe abantu bagera kuri miliyoni eshanu mu Rwanda no muri Congo), gufunga no guta mu buhungiro abatavuga rumwe na we. Akarusho nanone akaba we agerageza no gukurikirana hanze abatavuga rumwe na we bo mu byiciro byose (abakoranye na we mu buyobozi bwa gisirikari cyangwa se bwa gisivili, abanyamakuru,…), maze akabahonyora.

Tugarutse ku buryo abatavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi ubu bafashwe mu Rwanda, dusanga biteye agahinda. Koko rero, kujya muri opposition nyayo (atari bya bindi bya ya mashyaka akorera mu kwaha kwa FPR) bifatwa kimwe no kuba umwanzi w’igihugu. Ni muri ubwo buryo André Kagwa Rwisereka wari visi-perezida w’ishyaka Green Party, yishwe aciwe umutwe muri Nyakanga 2010. Me Bernard Ntaganda washinze ishyaka PS-Imberakuri akaba n’umuyobozi mukuru waryo yarafashwe afungirwa muri Gereza Nkuru y’i Kigali (1930), yakatiwe imyaka ine. Déo Mushayidi umuyobozi mukuru w‘ishyaka PDP-Imanzi, yashimutswe n’ubutegetsi bwa Kigali ajyanwa mu Rwanda. Ubu yakatiwe igifungo cya burundu. Madamu Victoire Ingabire Umuhoza, umuyobozi mukuru wa FDU-Inkingi yatawe muri yombi mu gihe yashakishaga uburyo ishyaka FDU ryakwandikwa mu Rwanda. Perezida Pawulo Kagame n’ubutegetsi bwe bamugeretseho ibyaha bikomeye harimo gushaka kurema umutwe w’ingabo no guhungabanya umutekano w’igihugu. Kubera ko ubucamanza bw’u Rwanda butigenga, Madamu Victoire Ingabire ashobora na we kuzakatirwa imyaka myinshi, bityo abe avuye mu mubare w’abaharanira ku mugaragaro ko imiterere y’ubutegetsi yahinduka. Abo banyapolitiki bafunze, bagiye basangamo Dr Théoneste Nitiyitegeka, wigeze kwiyamamaza nk’umukandida wigenga ku mwanya w’Umukuru w’igihugu mu matora yo muri 2003, Minisitiri Charles Ntakirutinka, n’abandi n’abandi.

Ku bantu bose bari ku rugamba rwa Demokarasi, ubutumwa nabaha ni ukudacibwa intege n’ibigeragezo duhura nabyo, tugahora iteka duharanira icyagirira umunyarwanda wese n’igihugu cyacu akamaro. Ngo agati katewe n’Imana ntikagushwa n’umuyaga. Amateka yarabyerekanye : Neslon Mandela, yafashwe nk’umwanzi w’igihugu; nyuma yo gufungwa imyaka 27 no gushyirwa kuri liste y’abakoresha itera bwoba, yaje gufungurwa mu w‘1990, aza kubona igihembo cy‘amahoro (prix Nobel de la Paix) muri 1993, ndetse nyuma y’aho muri 1994 aba Perezida w’igihugu cye Afrika y‘Epfo. Muri Birmania, Aung San Suu Kyi, wabonye igihembo cy’amahoro (prix Nobel de la Paix) muri1991, yakomeje gufungwa hato na hato, hanyuma aza kugera aho afungishwa ijisho imyaka igera kuri 7. Muri 2010 niho yafunguwe burundu ; ubu akaba ari umwe mu bantu bagishwa inama n’ibihugu by’ibihangange nka Leta Zunze Ubumwe z‘Amerika ku bibazo bijyanye no kugeza Birmania ku butegetsi bugendera kuri demokarasi, ndetse akaba aherutse no gutangaza ko ishyaka rye riziyamamaza mu matora y’abagize inteko ishinga amategeko.

Abanyarwanda ku buryo bw’umwihariko, twagombye gutera intambwe igana imbere mu guharanira ko umunyarwanda yagira ubwisanzure mu gihugu cye, ntazire ko yatanze ibitekerezo bye ku byo abona bitagenda neza cyangwa se bigomba gukosorwa.

Sinarangiza ntibukije abarwanashyaka b’ishyaka FDU-Inkingi, abayobozi baryo, inshuti zaryo ko ubutwari, kudashyira imbere inyungu zacu bwite ahubwo tugashyira imbere icyagirira igihugu cyose akamaro, guharanira ukuri no kwanga umugayo, ari byo bizadufasha kuzahura ishyaka ryacu no gutsinda urugamba rwa Demokarasi twiyemeje. Ni byo koko, byaragaragaye ko hari aho twageze, kubera kutabona ibintu kimwe, inzira zibyara amahari. Ntabwo byagombye gutuma uwo tutakibona/mutakibona ibintu kimwe afatwa nk’umwanzi. Tugomba gukora revolusiyo ya mentalité kugira ngo dushobore kugira imyitwarire ikwiye mu bikorwa byacu bya buri munsi.

[1]  Ntitwavuze ba Perezida Dominiko Mbonyumutwa, Théodore Sindikubwabo na Pasteur Bizimungu kubera uburyo bagiyeho cg se ubushobozi bari bafite nk’abayobozi b’u Rwanda.

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