UBUREZI MU RWANDA BUKOMEJE KUDINDIZWA NO GUHUBUKA MU GUFATA IBYEMEZO BYA POLITIKI

Benoit Ndagijimana,
Umunyamabanga mukuru wungirije wa FDU-Inkingi

Ikibazo cy’ivugurura rihubukiyeho ry’imyigishirize kimaze kuba akarande ari nako gikomeje kudindiza uburezi mu Rwanda.

Ntabwo muri iyi nyandiko dushobora kurondora amateka y’ivugurura ry’amashuri kuva abakoloni kimwe n’abamisiyoneri bagera mu Rwanda[1]. Ariko rero uhereye gusa nko kw’ivugurura ry’amashuri ryo mu mwaka w’1979, usanga harangiritse byinshi bitewe n’ubushishozi buke bw’abashinzwe gufata ibyemezo bya politiki y’uburezi mu rwego rw’igihugu.

Ivugurura ry’amashuri ryo muri 79 ryakuyeho kwigisha mu rurimi rw’igifaransa, ryimakaza ikinyarwanda, kiba ururimi rutangwamo inyigisho z’amoko yose mu mashuri abanza. Ntibyagarukiye aho, kuko imyaka y’amashuri abanza yakuwe kuri itandatu, igirwa umunani. Zimwe mu mpamvu zatangwaga zatumye iryo vugurura rikorwa, zikaba kwari ukugabanya itsindwa ry’abana no gutuma abana badashoboye gutsindira kujya mu mashuri yisumbuye bashobora kwirwanaho ku bundi buryo, kuko barangizaga amashuri abanza bakuze.

Nyuma y’imyaka mike iryo vugurura ribaye, byaje kugaragara ko ritashoboye gucyemura ibibazo byari byatumye rikorwa. Ahubwo uburezi bwasubiye inyuma, ku buryo abana benshi barangizaga imyaka umunani y’amashuri abanza badashobora kuganira nibura ku buryo bworoshye mu rurimi rw’igifaransa. Abayobozi baje kwotswa igitutu n’abaturage kimwe n’abanyamadini (abanyamadini bakunze kugira uruhare rukomeye mu burezi bw’igihugu), nibwo ahagana mu mwaka w’1991, igifaransa cyongeye gusubirana umwanya wacyo mu mashuri abanza. Ndetse guhera icyo gihe, amashuri abanza yongeye kugaruka ku myaka 6. Abo icyo cyemezo cyasanze barangije umwaka wa 6, barangirije amashuri yabo mu mwaka wa 7, ntabwo bize uwa munani.

Mu mwaka w’1994, nyuma y’uko FPR Inkotanyi itsindiye intambara ikajya ku butegetsi, hafashwe icyemezo cy’uko icyongereza n’igifaransa byombi bikoreshwa nk’indimi zitangwamo amasomo mu mashuri makuru na za kaminuza. Bityo, buri munyeshuri agakomeza gukurikira amasomo ye mu rurimi yari asanzwe yigamo.
Icyo cyemezo ubundi ntabwo cyari kibi. Gusa kugishyira mu bikorwa ku buryo abanyeshuri bose babona inyigisho zihamye kandi ku buryo bukwiye byaje kugorana, ku ruhande rumwe bitewe n’ikibazo cyo kubona abarimu babishoboye, ku rundi ruhande bitewe no kutagira ibikoresho bihagije nk’ibitabo, n’ibindi.

Bimwe mu bitaragenze neza mu ikoreshwa ry’igifaransa n’icyongereza mu mashuri makuru no muri za kaminuza tukaba tubisanga mu buhamya bunyuranye bw’abanyeshuri n’abarimu buvuga ko abanyeshuri benshi barangizaga badafite ubushobozi buhagije bw’izo ndimi. Imyanzuro y’iperereza ryakozwe na Komisiyo y’Inteko ishinga amategeko mu Rwanda mu bigo by’amashuri makuru nayo ivuga ko ari abanyeshuri, ari n’abarimu babo, bose babuze icyo bafata n’icyo bareka. Ingaruka z’uko guhera mu gihirahiro cy’indimi zitazwi neza n’abazigamo cyangwa abazigishamo, zikaba zigaragarira mu gutsindwa kw’abakandida bavuga ko basohotse za Kaminuza mu bizamini bikoreshwa mu gushaka akazi. Urugero ni nko mu mwaka w’2008, mu bizamini byakoreshejwe na Komisiyo y’igihugu ishinzwe abakozi ba Leta, 18% by’abitabiriye kubikora nibo batsinze.

Ibyo bikaba bica intege abenshi mu babyeyi, kuko babona ko ntacyo bimaze kwikokora utanga amafaranga y’ishuli (minervali) ngo umwana yige kaminuza, hanyuma akazayirangiza adafite ubushobozi bwamuhesha akazi. Ikindi ni uko iyo myigishirize idafashe, ituma u Rwanda rujya mu bihugu bifite abantu benshi bafite impamyabumenyi n’impamyabushobozi, ariko mu by’ukuri ba nyirazo badafite ubumenyi n’ubushobozi bubahesha akazi cyangwa bushobora gutuma bapigana n’abafite impamyabushobozi nk’izabo ariko bize hanze. Ku rundi ruhande, ibyo nanone bikaba byongera umubare w’abashomeri mu gihugu.

Ibintu byaje guhumira ku mirari muri 2009, ubwo ubutegetsi bw’i Kigali bwafataga icyemezo cyo guca igifaransa nka rumwe mu ndimi zatangwamo inyigisho, maze bukimika icyongereza ngo ari cyo gikoreshwa kuva mu kiburamwaka kugeza mu mashuri makuru na za kaminuza.

Aha twakwibutsa ko ababikurikiraniye hafi bemeza ko icyo twakwita kutareba kure n’ubuhubutsi mu gufata icyemezo nk’icyo, byaba byaratewe ahanini n’uburakari Leta ya FPR yagize igihe umucamanza w’u Bufaransa Jean-Louis Bruguière yasohoraga inyandiko ishinja Perezida Pawulo Kagame n’abandi basirikare 9 kuba baragize uruhare mu ihanurwa ry’indege yari itwaye ba Perezida Yuvenali Habyarimana w’u Rwanda na Sipiriyani Ntaryamira w’u Burundi tariki ya 6 Mata 1994. Icyo cyemezo cyaje gikurikurikira ibindi byemezo harimo icyo guhagarika umubano ushingiye kuri za ambasadi hagati y’u Rwanda n’u Bufaransa (tariki ya 24/11/20006), guhagarika umurongo wa FM wa Radio France Internationale-RFI (tariki ya 28/11/2006) n’icyo gusaba kwinjira mu mulyango w’ibihugu bivuga icyongereza (Commonwealth). Ubu ndetse u Rwanda rukaba rwaremerewe kwinjira muri uwo mulyango.

Mu mateka y’uburezi bw’igihugu cyacu, igifaransa ni rwo rurimi rw’amahanga rwakoreshwaga mu mashuri ndetse no mu nzego za Leta. Ni akumiro rero, kuba ijoro rimwe hari umuntu cyangwa se agatsiko k’abantu wafashe/bafashe icyemezo cyo guhindura amateka y’ururimi rukoreshwa mu gihugu batitaye ku ngaruka mbi icyo cyemezo kizagira ku banyarwanda.

Koko rero, icyagaragaye ni uko abenshi mu bakozi ba Leta basezerewe ku mirimo yabo kubera kutamenya icyongereza, abarimu benshi barirukanywe abandi bategekwa gukora iyo bwabaga bakiga icyongereza mu minsi mike kandi bagahita bacyigishamo! Ibyo bikaba bituma kugeza uyu munsi hari abarimu baca amarenga iyo bigisha kubera kutamenya ururimi. Ababyeyi bamwe babonye abana babo ntacyo bashobora kumenya mu gihe birirwa barebana n’abarimu babo babuze ururimi bavuganamo mu ishuri (ntawarenganya abarimu kuko ntawe utanga icyo adafite), bahitamo kohereza abana babo muri Uganda (kuko ho nibura bazigishwa n’abarimu bavuga icyongereza koko, cyangwa muri RDC no mu Burundi kuko muri ibi bihugu byombi abana bashobora gukomeza amashuri yabo mu rurimi bamenyereye kwigamo (ni ukuvuga igifaransa). Aha twakongeraho ko harimo n’impamvu zijyanye n’ubushobozi bw’ababyeyi, kuko mu Rwanda bigoye kugira ngo babone amafaranga yo gushyira abana babo mu mashuri afite abarimu babishoboye.

Ku banyeshuri, icyemezo gihubukiyeho cyo gukurikira amasomo mu cyongereza gusa byagize ingaruka ku bana biga mu mashuri ya Leta, akenshi usanga yiganjemo abana bakomoka mu milyango idakize cyane. Abana bakomoka mu milyango ikize bari basanzwe biga mu rurimi rw’icyongereza kandi bigishwa n’abarimu bazi urwo rurimi. Aha twavuga nka Green Hills Academy, Kigali Parents School cyangwa se Riviera High School.

Ibi bikaba byarongeye kugaragaza ivangura, ubusumbane ndetse n’akarengane biranga imiterere y’uburezi bw’u Rwanda, aho usanga hamwe na hamwe abana bigira mu nsi y’igiti bagerageza gufatanya na mwarimu kumva icyo ashaka kuvuga kubera ko icyongereza abigishamo na we ubwe atacyumva kandi atanakivuga (uretse kuvuga ibisa nacyo!), mu gihe ahandi bigira mu mashuri afite ibikoresho byose ndetse na za ordinateri zigendanwa kandi bafite abarimu bafite ubushobozi bwo kwigisha mu cyongereza.[2]

Ubwo busumbane bukomeza no kugaragarira mu myigire muri za kaminuza, kubera ko hari abanyeshuri benshi batsindwa kubera ko batangiye kwiga mu rurimi rw’icyongereza barangije amashuri yisumbuye. Hari nubwo umunyeshuri abura icyongereza cyo gusobanurira jury igitabo yanditse (cyangwa se yandikishije, dore ko nabyo bivugwa) arangiza amashuri, yabura uko abigenza agakubitamo igifaransa!

Uretse ivugurura rijyanye n’indimi zitangwamo inyigisho, habaye n’ivugurura rijyanye n’igihe abanyeshuri bagira mu biruhuko. Kuva ururimi rw’icyongereza rusimbuye igifaransa mu mashuri, Leta y’u Rwanda yafashe icyemezo cy’uko ibiruhuko birebire bitazongera gufatwa mu kwezi kwa karindwi n’ukwa munani. Ubu kuva mu kiburamwaka kugeza muri za kaminuza, batangirira ibiruhuko rimwe. Uyu mwaka bazabitangira mu mpera z’Ukwakira 2011. Bazasubira ku ishuri muri Mutarama 2012.

Ingorane twavuga muzatewe n’iri hindagurika ry’igihe cyo gufata ibiruhuko, ni uko mu kwezi kwa 7 n’ukwa 8 mu Rwanda haba hashyushye kubera izuba, ibyo bigatuma abanyeshuri batiga neza; abarimu nabo ntabwo ubwo bushyuhe buborohereza akazi. Ikindi ni uko nko muri za kaminuza z’u Rwanda bagira ikibazo cy’imikoranire na za kaminuza zo hanze, kubera ko mu gihe abo mu Rwanda baba bari kwiga, mu bihugu bindi baba bari mu biruhuko.
Biravugwa ko Leta y’u Rwanda ishobora kuba iteganya kongera kugarura ibiruhuko mu gihe byari bisanzwe bifatirwaho, ni ukuvuga ko ibiruhuko birebire byagaruka mu kwezi kwa 7 n’ukwa 8. Niba ibivugwa bibaye impamo ntacyo byaba bitwaye, kuko ikibazo ni ukuba bareka ibintu bigakomeza gutya, kandi bigaragara ko ari ikosa ryakozwe n’abashinzwe gufata ibyemezo.

Iyo witegereje imiterere y’uburezi mu Rwanda, usanga bibabaje.Ese ko dufite abantu benshi baminuje mu bijyanye n’uburezi, igenamigambi ndetse no mu mashami y’andi y’ubuzima, ni kuki hakomeza gufatwa ibyemezo bidahwitse, bigamije kudindiza imiterere y’amashuri n’uburezi mu gihugu cyacu? Ese abo dukunze kumva ko ari intumwa za rubanda iki kibazo bakivugaho iki? Ni kuki amavugurura y’uburezi mu gihugu cyacu akomeje kurangwa n’ubushishozi buke? Ni ugushakira impamvu mu miterere y’ubutegetsi n’uburyo ibyemezo bireba igihugu bifatwamo. Inzira rero iracyari ndende.

[1] Kuri iyi ngingo, reba, Evariste NTAKIRUTIMANA, LE FRANÇAIS AU RWANDA. Lien Internet: http://www.unice.fr/ILF-CNRS/ofcaf/25/Ntakirutimana%20evariste.pdf
[2] Soma igitabo cya Yohani Batista NKULIYINGOMA, INKUNDURA, Editions La Pagaie, 2011, pp.320-325

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